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Mechanism of Action of Hydroxychloroquine as an Antirheumatic Drug

Mechanism of Action of Hydroxychloroquine as an Antirheumatic Drug Abstract The antimalarial agents chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have been used widely for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. These compounds lead to improvement of clinical and laboratory parameters, but their slow onset of action distinguishes them from glucocorticoids and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine increase pH within intracellular vacuoles and alter processes such as protein degradation by acidic hydrolases in the lysosome, assembly of macromolecules in the endosomes, and posttranslation modification of proteins in the Golgi apparatus. It is proposed that the antirheumatic properties of these compounds results from their interference with "antigen processing" in macrophages and other antigen-presenting cells. Acidic cytoplasmic compartments are required for the antigenic protein to be digested and for the pept

garibo ki hak me to ab sanse bhi nhi rahi

Halat u aisa hai aaj kal ki sanse bhi gin gin ke di rahi hai garib ko,           Is sanso ki dor n n jane kitni jindgi ko nigal gya.                Vikas bhi mar gya aur uski ma bhi,      Fir bhi  long beard ko chhu ke awaj aa rhi. Hum vikash Paida karenge. Aisa vikash ki Duniya Dekhegi,       Are 6 year me paida n huwa to ab to uski ma bhi nhi hai. Kaise karoge paida ab vikash ko. Waha re Vikas paida karne wale,         Himat ko sabai deni padegi Vikash paida karne wale ki,  

Survival of fittest, And competition in Living behaviour.

  Survival of fittest, And competition in Living behaviour . ये हमे ये बताता है कि किस तरह से जीव जंतुओं को जीवित रहने के लिए, पर्यावरण की स्थिति के अनुसार चेंज होना पडता है। जो Living organisms ऐसा नहीं करते वो  extinct aur Rare Category में आ जाते हैं। कोरोना तो ऐसा कर रहा म्युटेशन पे म्यूटेशन कर के सर्वाइवल के लिय, हर Living organisms का यह Nature है चाहे कोई भी हो। Evolution ,( mutation) इक process है Survival का किसी भी Living organisms का। ऐसा ये भी कर रहा कुछ नया नहीं।  लेकिन हम इन्सान हो के। हम न social, न  physical न । Internal  कुछ नहीं बदलाव कर रहे। न चाहते हैं। ऐसा करना क्यों कि हम काफी Development कर चुके हैं न। चांद तक चले गए। अब क्या कोई बिगारेग। लेकिन हकीकत ऐसा नहीं है। न कभी होगा।   Survival of fittest, And competition in Living behaviour .  ऐ सत्य है। और ये भी। बाप का भी बाप  होता है। इस लिये हम सब को लड़ना होगा।  इक किसी community को बचाने के लिए उस पुरी community को लड़ना पड़ता है। हमें खुद को बचाना है तो । हमें ख़ुद ही लड़ना होगा। Government कोई भगवान नहीं है। वो भ

Mutations in viral RNA and recombinations of RNA from different sources lead to viral evolution.

Mutation , an alteration in the genetic material (the  genome ) of a  cell  of a living organism or of a  virus  that is more or less permanent and that can be transmitted to the cell’s or the virus’s descendants. (The genomes of organisms are all composed of  DNA , whereas viral genomes can be of DNA or  RNA ; see  heredity: The physical basis of heredity .) Mutation in the DNA of a body cell of a  multicellular organism  ( somatic mutation ) may be transmitted to descendant cells by DNA replication and hence result in a sector or patch of cells having abnormal function, an example being  cancer . Mutations in egg or sperm cells ( germinal mutations ) may result in an individual offspring all of whose cells carry the mutation, which often confers some serious malfunction, as in the case of a  human genetic disease  such as  cystic fibrosis . Mutations result either from accidents during the normal chemical transactions of DNA, often during replication, or from exposure to high-energy

Viral variant causes a more deadly form of COVID. #newcoronaviruses-covid19

Particles (green; artificially coloured) of SARS-CoV-2 infect a host cell. Credit: AMI Images/Science Photo Library People infected with the coronavirus variant called B.1.1.7 are at a higher risk of dying than are people infected with other circulating variants, regardless of their age, sex and pre-existing health problems. Daniel Grint at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine and his colleagues studied the health records of 184,786 people in England who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 between 16 November 2020 and 11 January 2021. Of these individuals, 867 died by 5 February 2021 (D. Grint  et al . Preprint at medRxiv. 2021). The researchers found that for three people who died within a month of testing positive for a previously circulating viral variant, some five died after testing positive for B.1.1.7. The risk of death increases with age and the presence of pre-existing health problems, and men are at higher risk of dying than women. First detected in the United King

Stress symptoms and your health.

          Article posted by :  Vinod kushwaha Stress is a feeling of emotional or physical tension. It can come from any event or thought that makes you feel frustrated, angry, or nervous. Stress is your body's reaction to a challenge or demand. In short bursts, stress can be positive, such as when it helps you avoid danger or meet a deadline. But when stress lasts for a long time, it may harm your health. Considerations Stress is a normal feeling. There are two main types of stress: Acute stress.  This is short-term stress that goes away quickly. You feel it when you slam on the brakes, have a fight with your partner, or ski down a steep slope. It helps you manage dangerous situations. It also occurs when you do something new or exciting. All people have acute stress at one time or another. Chronic stress.  This is stress that lasts for a longer period of time. You may have chronic stress if you have money problems, an unhappy marriage, or trouble at work. Any type of

A new polio vaccine joins the fight to vanquish the paralyzing disease

A new polio vaccine joins the fight to vanquish the paralyzing dise ase The modified vaccine seeks to end outbreaks in the Middle East and Africa A baby is vaccinated against polio in Mauritania in 2020V Vaccination campaigns have provided more than 10 billion doses of oral polio vaccine to nearly 3 billion children since 2000, preventing more than 13 million cases of polio, according to the World Health Organization. After decades of work and mass vaccination campaigns that have spared millions of children from paralysis, the world is close to wiping out polio. But a small number of outbreaks that have simmered in areas of low vaccination remain. And some happened after weakened virus in the oral polio vaccine, over time, moved around a community and regained the ability to cause disease. No other vaccines made with weakened live viruses have caused outbreaks of disease. To stamp out vaccine-derived polio outbreaks, the World Health Organization has granted  emergency use for a new po

Protecte yourself from cancer by adding these anti-cancer foods to your diet.

    Topic::  How to protect from cancer with food Anti-cancer Food in your daily life, reduce the chance of cancer An anti- cancer diet  is an important strategy you can use to reduce your risk of cancer. The American Cancer Society recommends, for example, that you eat at least five servings of fruits and vegetables daily and eat the right amount of food to stay at a healthy weight. In addition, researchers are finding that certain foods that  prevent cancer  may be an important part of an anti-cancer diet. Although selecting  cancer-fighting foods  at the grocery store and at mealtime can't guarantee  cancer prevention , good choices may help  reduce your risk . Consider these anti-cancer diet guidelines: Eat plenty of fruits and vegetables.  Fruits and vegetables are full of vitamins and nutrients that are thought to reduce the risk of some  types of cancer . Eating more plant-based foods also gives you little room for foods high in sugar. Instead of filling up on processed or s